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Learn and Know IP Addresses, Subnetting,and VLSM

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IP Address

IP Address is the address assigned to the network and network equipment that uses the TCP/IP protocol. The IP address consists of 32 bits (biary digits or double numbers) binary numbers which are divided into 4 ockets (bytes) consisting of 8 bits. Each bit represents a decimal number ranging from 0 to 255.

The types of IP addresses consist of:

  1. Public IP

Highest public bit range address bit network address
class A 0 0 – 127* 8
class B 10 128 – 191 16
class C 110 192 – 223 24
class D 1110 224 – 239 28

  1. Private

This Private IP can be used freely but is not recognized on the global internet network. Because it is usually used on closed networks that are not connected to the internet, such as ATM computer networks.

10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255

Conclusion
1.0.0.0 – 126.0.0.0 : Class A.
127.0.0.0 : Loopback network.
128.0.0.0 – 191.255.0.0 : Class B.
192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.0 : Class C.
224.0.0.0 = 240.0.0.0 : Class E, reserved.
3. IPv6
consists of 16 octets, for example:
A524:72D3:2C80:DD02:0029:EC7A:002B:EA73

 

Subnetting

A Network Administrator often requires network sharing from an IP Address that has been assigned by the Internet Service Provider (ISP). This is because the supply of IP addresses is currently very limited due to the proliferation of sites on the internet. The way to divide the network is called subneting and the result of subneting is called subnetwork. The steps for subnetting are as follows:

Example 2:
A company gets an IP address from an ISP 160.100.0.0/16, the company has 30 departments in total, and wants all departments to have access to the internet. Determine the network for each department?

Solution ;
1. Determine which class the IP is in? B
2. How many networks are needed?
with the formula 2n > network needed
25 > 30
3. Convert to binary

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

  1. Take the host-portion bit according to the network needs, so that

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 _ _ _ _ _ 000 00000000
11111111 11111111 1 1 1 1 1 000 00000000

note the third octet
_ _ _ _ _ 000
1 1 1 1 1 000

Method 1

By combining bits

00001 000 = 8
00010 000 = 16
00011 000 = 24
00100 000 = 32
00101 000 = 40
00110 000 = 48
……………
11111 000 = 248

Method 2
Reduce the subnet mask by 256

11111 000 = 248

256 – 248 = 8 then the subnetwork is a multiple of 8

No. Department of Subnetwork (255.255.248.0)
1 First 160.100.8.0
2 Second 160.100.16.0
3 Third 160.100.24.0
4 Fourth 160.100.32.0
5 Fifth 160.100.40.0
6 Sixth 160.100.48.0
7 Seventh 160.100.56.0
.. ………….
30 Thirty 160.100.248.0
Then

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.8.0 160.100.15.255 160.100.8.1 – 160.100.15.254
160.100.16.0 160.100.23.255 160.100.16.1 – 160.100.23.254
160.100.24.0 160.100.31.255 160.100.24.1 – 160.100.31.254
160.100.32.0 160.100.39.255 160.100.31.254 160.100.32.0 160.100.39.255 160.100.32.1 – 160.100.39.254
160.100.40.0 160.100.47.255 160.100.40.1 – 160.100.47.254
160.100.48.0 160.100.55.255 160.100.48.1 – 160.100.55.254
160.100.56.0 160.100.63.255 160.100.56.1 – 160.100.63.254
160.100.64.0 160 100 .71.255 160.100.64.1 – 160.100.71.254
160.100.72.0 160.100.79.255 160.100.72.1 – 160.100.79.254
…… .. ………. ………….

160.100.248.0 160.100.255.255 160.100.248.1 – 160.100.255.254

VLSM (Variable Leg Subnet Mask)

The concept of subneting is indeed a solution in overcoming the number of IP addresses used. However, if you pay attention, there will be many subnets. More detailed explanation in the example:

Example 2:
A company that has 6 departments wants to divide its network, including:
1. Department A = 100 hosts
2. Department B = 57 hosts
3. Department C = 325 hosts
4. Department D = 9 hosts
5. Department E = 500 hosts
6. Department F = 25 hosts

IP Address given from ISP is 160.100.0.0/16

If we use ordinary subneting it will be easy to get but the results of subneting (such as example 1) will be wasted because the results of subneting are too many than the required number of hosts. Then we need VLSM calculations, namely:

  1. Sort by required hosts
    1. Department E = 500 hosts
    2. Department C = 325 hosts
    3. Department A = 100 hosts
    4. Department B = 57 hosts
    5. Department F = 25 hosts
    6. Department D = 9 hosts
  2. Convert to binary

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
If the subneting is taken from the network then the VLSM is taken from the host

l For 500 hosts
network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

For 500 hosts, 9 bits are taken from the host-portion because
2n-2 > number of hosts

The result is 160.100.0.0/23

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.0.0/23 160.100.0.255 160.100.0.1 – 160.100.1.254
160.100.2.0/23 160.100.2.255 160.100.2.1 – 160.100.3.254
160.100.4.0/23 160.100.4.255 160.100.4.1 – 160.100.5.254
160.100.6.0/23 160.100.6.255 160.100.6.1 – 160.100.7.254
160.100.8.0/23 160.100.8.255 160.100.8.1 – 160.100.9.254
…….. ………. ………….
160.100.254.0/23 160.100.254.255 160.100.254.1 – 160.100.255.254

l For 325 hosts we can still use a subnet of 500 hosts because it is still in arena 29 and choose an unused subnet.
l For 100 hosts use 28 > 100 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.2.0/24

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000010 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.2.0/24 160.100.2.255 160.100.2.1 – 160.100.2.254
160.100.3.0/24 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.1 – 160.100.3.254

l For 57 hosts use 26 >57 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.0/24

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.0/26 160.100.3.91 160.100.3.1 – 160.100.3.90
160.100.3.64/26 160.100.3.63 160.100.3.65 – 160.100.3.126
160.100.3.128/26 160.100.3.127 160.100.3.129 – 160 100. 3.190
160.100.3.192/26 160.100.3.191 160.100.3.193 – 160.100.3.254

l For 25 hosts use 25 > 25 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.192/25

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000
then

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.192/27 160.100.3.223 160.100.3.193 – 160.100.3.222
160.100.3.224/27 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.225 – 160.100.3.254

l For 9 hosts use 24 > 16 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.224/25

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.224/28 160.100.3.239 160.100.3.225 – 160.100.3.227
160.100.3.240/28 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.241 – 160.100.3.254

 

SUBNETTING ON IP ADDRESS CLASS B

First, the subnet mask that can be used for subnetting class B is as below. I deliberately separated it into two, the left and right blocks because each has a different technique, especially for the octet that is “played” based on the subnet block. The CIDR /17 to /24 method is exactly the same as the Class C subnetting, only the subnet blocks are inserted directly into the third octet, not like Class C is “played” in the fourth octet. While the CIDR /25 to /30 (multiple) of the subnet block we “play” in the fourth octet, but after the third octet is finished, we move forward (coeunter) from 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on.

Now let’s try two questions for both subnetting techniques for Class B. We start from using a subnetmask with a CIDR of /17 to /24. Example network address 172.16.0.0/18.

Analysis: 172.16.0.0 means class B, with Subnet Mask /18 means 11111111.11111111.110000000000000 (255.255.192.0).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 2x, where x is the number of binaries 1 in the last 2 octets. So the number of subnets is 22 = 4 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 2y – 2, where y is the reciprocal of x i.e. the number of 0 binaries in the last 2 octets. So the number of hosts per subnet is 214 – 2 = 16,382 hosts
  • Block Subnet = 256 – 192 = 64. The next subnets are 64 + 64 = 128, and 128+64=192. So the complete subnets are 0, 64, 128, 192.
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

Next we try another one for Class B, especially for those using the CIDR /25 to /30 subnetmask. Example network address 172.16.0.0/25.

Analysis: 172.16.0.0 means class B, with Subnet Mask /25 means 11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000 (255.255.255.128).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 29 = 512 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 27 – 2 = 126 hosts
  • Subnet block = 256 – 128 = 128. So the complete is (0, 128)
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

SUBNETTING ON IP ADDRESS CLASS A

If it is solid and understands correctly, we will continue to Class A. The concepts are all the same. The difference is in which OCTET we play the subnet blocks. If Class C is in the 4th (last) octet, class B is in the 3rd and 4th octet (last 2 octet), if Class A is in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th octet (last 3 octet). Then the subnet masks that can be used for subnetting class A are all subnet masks from CIDR /8 to /30.

We try to practice for the network address 10.0.0.0/16.

Analysis: 10.0.0.0 means class A, with Subnet Mask /16 means 111111111.11111111.000000000000000 (255.255.0.0).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 28 = 256 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 216 – 2 = 65534 hosts
  • Block Subnet = 256 – 255 = 1. So the complete subnet is: 0.1,2,3,4, and so on.
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

Note: All subnet calculations above assume that IP Subnet-Zeroes (and IP Subnet-Ones) are calculated by default. Todd Lamle’s latest version of the book as well as CCNA after 2005 have accommodated this IP Subnet-Zeroes (and IP Subnet-Ones) problem. CCNA pre-2005 does not include it by default (though in fact we can activate it with the command ip subnet-zeroes), so maybe in some books about CCNA and CNAP test questions, you still find the formula for calculating the number of subnets = 2x – 2

 

IP Address

IP Address is the address assigned to the network and network equipment that uses the TCP / IP protocol. IP addresses consist of 32 bit binary numbers which can be written as four decimal places separated by periods such as 192.16.10.01 or for example in wxyz format. IP addresses are the most widely used protocols for forwarding (routing) information on the network.

IP addresses have classes as in table 2.4.

Table 2.4. IP address
classes Class Range Network ID Host ID Default Subnet Mask
A 1-126 w xyz 255.0.0.0
B 128-191 wx yz 255.255.0.0
C 192-223 wxy z 255.255.255.0

note: there is still class D that is rarely used, and there is IPV6 that will be used if this IPV4 is not sufficient.

For example, there is an IP 192.168.0.100, so it includes a Class C IP Address

Subnetting

If an owner of a class B IP address, for example, requires more than one network ID, he must apply to Internic to get a new IP address. However, the supply of IP addresses is very limited due to the proliferation of sites on the internet.

To overcome this, a technique emerged to multiply the network ID from an existing network. This is called subnetting, in which a portion of the host ID is sacrificed for use in creating additional network IDs.

For example, in class B, the network ID is 130.200.0.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.224.0 where the third octet is enclosed by 224. It can be calculated using the formula 256-224=32. then the subnet groups that can be used are multiples of 32, 64, 128, 160, and 192. Thus, the IP address groups that can be used are:

130.200.32.1 to 130.200.63.254
130.200.64.1 to 130.200.95.254
130.200.96.1 to 130.200.127.254
130.200.128.1 to 130.200.159.254
130.200.160.1 to 130.200.191.254
130.200.192.1 to 130.200.223.254

Or it will be easier with a good formulation in determining the subnet and the number of hosts per subnet. The number of subnets = 2n-2, n = the number of hidden bits

Number of hosts per subnet = 2N-2, N = number of bits not hidden

For example, suppose a subnet has a network address of 193.20.32.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224. So: The
number of subnets is 6, because from the network address 193.20.32.0 by paying attention to the number from the first octet, which is 193, it can be seen that it is in class C. By observing the subnetmask 255.255.255.224 or 11111111.11111111.1111111. 11100000 can be seen that the three bits of the host ID are shrouded, so we get n = 3 and get: number of subnets = 23-2 = 6.

As for the number of hosts per subnet is 30, this is obtained from 5 bits that are not hidden, then N = 5 and will be obtained: the number of hosts per subnet = 25-2 = 30.

The hidden bit is the bit that is represented by the number 1, while the bit that is not hidden is the bit that is represented by the number 0.

 

 

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My Custom Spotify Code Playlist Keyring

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I recently received a unique Spotify code Engraved Keychain for Birthday gift from my bestie. This was a big surprise for me as i never expected this to be my Birthday Gift. The Spotify code was Engraved on a Flat Stainless Steel rectangle keychain and had my favorite Song playing when i scanned it right away.

This was the gift that made my Day.

The Keychain came wrapped professionally in a plastic foil so it reached me in the best condition.
Now i take my favorite song with me everywhere i go with these scannable keychain, Get your friends or loved one’s favorite song engraved and give it to them as a gift they would love. Its a unique gifting Idea to send them a Scannable Spotify Song Code Key ring / Key Chain.

Engraved4ever.com has got many options where they engrave the Spotify scannable song or playlist code.
They engrave it on Flat Keychains, Bar pendant Keychains, Bar pendant necklaces, Spotify code on Guitar picks, Spotify Code engraving on Bracelets.

So get your Custom Spotify Code Playlist Keyrings Personalized. For Best Spotify Song Code Keychain & Gift For Him & Her visit Engraved4ever.com

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Tips For Buying Glasses: How To Choose The Most Suitable

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A carefully chosen new pair of eyeglasses will not only add to your appeal, but will reinforce and become part of your personality. It is obvious that prescription lenses must provide the person with optimal vision. Your optometrist can help you not only in choosing the frame that best suits you, but can also customize your prescription lenses according to your needs.

Sometimes there is no alternative but to buy a new pair of eyeglasses. And not just because your vision has changed, but because of the unstoppable pace of fashion or because you need a second pair for certain activities. It may also be that yours are outdated. However, as a result of the wide selection available today, buying a new frame and lenses is no longer an easy task. Today, good optometrists offer their clients an endless variety of different models and features. But anyone who knows what they are looking for will easily find the perfect pair of glasses.

Scope of use of new glasses

A very important criterion when buying new eyeglasses is the possibility of combining them. This criteria can vary greatly from one user to another. One of the first questions to ask yourself is: what do I need the glasses for or what do I mainly need them for? A person who works all day with the computer will need different glasses than someone who works mainly outdoors or performs sports activities. The more information the optometrist has (a good professional will always ask you a lot of questions), the easier the selection process will be. Compare your experience buying new glasses with buying a car. The optometrist will inform you and show you all the “characteristics” that may suit you better.

State-of-the-art technology

Another maxim when buying glasses: the more individualized the glasses, the better results will be obtained in terms of quality of vision, comfort characteristics and tolerance, for example in the case of multifocals. The concept is similar to that of a tailor-made suit, as opposed to purchasing a standard garment, which may fit well, but does not offer a guarantee. 

Choosing prescription lenses

Once you have found a good optometrist, it is normal to take a look around the store looking for some nice frames. But not all prescription lenses are suitable for all types of frames, so it is advisable to choose the lenses first. If you want to relax and improve your vision, it is obvious that prescription lenses represent the most important component of your new eyeglasses. Only proper prescription lenses can guarantee the improvement of your vision.

The mounts

With regard to frames, the optometrist usually selects some models that seem appropriate beforehand, since he knows your product offering and will also be the one to help you achieve your goal given the wide range of possibilities. Be sure to make your color, material and price preferences clear from the start. The most important thing is that the new glasses harmonize with the shape of your face and be Compatible with chosen prescription lenses.

The following generally applies: People with round faces should opt for angular frames, while people with angular faces are better suited to a round frame. Oval-faced people are lucky enough to be able to choose the shape they want. Optometrists often advise people with triangular or heart-shaped faces to opt for a slim, oval frame.

Another thing to consider when buying a frame is the material. It is obvious that the weight of the glasses plays an important role in the decision. A new frame should be comfortable from the moment you try it on. If you have any type of allergy, it is important that you ask about the composition of the frames.

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Benefits Of Outsourcing Services In A Company

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Outsourcing services has become a vital alternative for many companies for various reasons: it provides agility, professionalism, saves time, reduces costs, improves efficiency and increases productivity. And in addition, it fully adapts to the requirements set out in the General Data Protection Regulation (RGPD). But there is much more. And we want to share it with you in this post. Let’s start!

What is the outsourcing of services?

Subcontracting of services or people with a specific management model, where periodic follow-up meetings, call, SLAs, etc. are defined. The services provided are, in general, user support, infrastructure maintenance, development, correction or evolution of applications, among others. It is a model with specific management tools with solutions for ticketing, reporting, etc., although these services may vary from one company to another.

Outsourcing solutions are designed with very diverse objectives, such as reducing IT costs and administration problems while complying with the GDPR. IT management encompasses:

Currently, companies are forced to invest in heterogeneous and proprietary tools instead of going towards ‘as a Service’ paradigms that offer differentiation by levels of attention, support and monitoring. The outsourcing of services can provide speed, high training, savings, administration and supervision.

More than 30% of SMEs do not have a backup solution, and of those who do, only 8% check the validity of the data contained, with 17% of the copies made failing. Some outsourced services are: backup of physical or virtual machines, physical backup to cloud and cloud to cloud, backup management of hybrid environments, etc.

Around 85% of SMEs have difficulty finding the budget to deploy a backup or Disaster Recovery solution for their data. Of those who decide to implement it, more than 80% find the solution complex or lacks functionality. Some DR services are: recovery of information in the event of data unavailability, or availability of data in the event of contingencies in the cloud or On Premise.

The Managed Services offered by companies may vary from company to company. There are very different technical solutions, it all depends on the needs of each company. For example: infrastructure control, IT environment security, storage expansion, implementation and replacement services, among others.

How to improve your IT infrastructure?

Operational and application continuity are responsible for providing customers with the operational and available IT infrastructure they need. Therefore, managed services companies must offer their clients the possibility of seeing their work, the service evolution reporting offer, etc. In this way, they will be able to appreciate the evolution. Keep in mind that the areas in charge of making decisions will be the Operations, Monitoring and Management Committees.

What are the current needs of your company? Have you thought about outsourcing part of your services? Managed services can be adapted to the current needs of your business, regardless of whether you want to outsource a part of IT or all of it. The ultimate goal is for your company to enjoy the highest possible quality.

10 benefits of outsourcing services in your company

Outsourcing solutions are designed for those clients who seek or need to outsource the management of part or their entire technological infrastructure. These services integrate everything organizations need to scale to another level. Next, we show you the advantages of carrying out this outsourcing:

  1. Reduction of costs for computer support, optimization of processes, training and qualification of personnel, among others.
  2. Immediate assistance and on-site or remote support.
  3. Technical assistance to equipment, infrastructure and networks.
  4. A single contract for all the devices and infrastructures of the company.
  5. Focus efforts on the most important tasks and key activities of your business.
  6. Leave minor activities in the hands of trusted providers specialized in the field.
  7. Save time, thus improving the efficiency of the company.
  8. Optimization of business processes, achieving the simplification of all procedures.
  9. Increase all the growth potential of the company and take on new challenges.
  10. Improve financial problems of liquidity and cash flow.

Many CEOs need support, advice and technological partners that allow them to take their ICT infrastructures to the level they need. The providers of this type of service are specialists in critical environments and can ensure high availability and operation, integrating the company’s processes with technology.

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