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Learn and Know IP Addresses, Subnetting,and VLSM

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IP Address

IP Address is the address assigned to the network and network equipment that uses the TCP/IP protocol. The IP address consists of 32 bits (biary digits or double numbers) binary numbers which are divided into 4 ockets (bytes) consisting of 8 bits. Each bit represents a decimal number ranging from 0 to 255.

The types of IP addresses consist of:

  1. Public IP

Highest public bit range address bit network address
class A 0 0 – 127* 8
class B 10 128 – 191 16
class C 110 192 – 223 24
class D 1110 224 – 239 28

  1. Private

This Private IP can be used freely but is not recognized on the global internet network. Because it is usually used on closed networks that are not connected to the internet, such as ATM computer networks.

10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255

Conclusion
1.0.0.0 – 126.0.0.0 : Class A.
127.0.0.0 : Loopback network.
128.0.0.0 – 191.255.0.0 : Class B.
192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.0 : Class C.
224.0.0.0 = 240.0.0.0 : Class E, reserved.
3. IPv6
consists of 16 octets, for example:
A524:72D3:2C80:DD02:0029:EC7A:002B:EA73

 

Subnetting

A Network Administrator often requires network sharing from an IP Address that has been assigned by the Internet Service Provider (ISP). This is because the supply of IP addresses is currently very limited due to the proliferation of sites on the internet. The way to divide the network is called subneting and the result of subneting is called subnetwork. The steps for subnetting are as follows:

Example 2:
A company gets an IP address from an ISP 160.100.0.0/16, the company has 30 departments in total, and wants all departments to have access to the internet. Determine the network for each department?

Solution ;
1. Determine which class the IP is in? B
2. How many networks are needed?
with the formula 2n > network needed
25 > 30
3. Convert to binary

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

  1. Take the host-portion bit according to the network needs, so that

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 _ _ _ _ _ 000 00000000
11111111 11111111 1 1 1 1 1 000 00000000

note the third octet
_ _ _ _ _ 000
1 1 1 1 1 000

Method 1

By combining bits

00001 000 = 8
00010 000 = 16
00011 000 = 24
00100 000 = 32
00101 000 = 40
00110 000 = 48
……………
11111 000 = 248

Method 2
Reduce the subnet mask by 256

11111 000 = 248

256 – 248 = 8 then the subnetwork is a multiple of 8

No. Department of Subnetwork (255.255.248.0)
1 First 160.100.8.0
2 Second 160.100.16.0
3 Third 160.100.24.0
4 Fourth 160.100.32.0
5 Fifth 160.100.40.0
6 Sixth 160.100.48.0
7 Seventh 160.100.56.0
.. ………….
30 Thirty 160.100.248.0
Then

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.8.0 160.100.15.255 160.100.8.1 – 160.100.15.254
160.100.16.0 160.100.23.255 160.100.16.1 – 160.100.23.254
160.100.24.0 160.100.31.255 160.100.24.1 – 160.100.31.254
160.100.32.0 160.100.39.255 160.100.31.254 160.100.32.0 160.100.39.255 160.100.32.1 – 160.100.39.254
160.100.40.0 160.100.47.255 160.100.40.1 – 160.100.47.254
160.100.48.0 160.100.55.255 160.100.48.1 – 160.100.55.254
160.100.56.0 160.100.63.255 160.100.56.1 – 160.100.63.254
160.100.64.0 160 100 .71.255 160.100.64.1 – 160.100.71.254
160.100.72.0 160.100.79.255 160.100.72.1 – 160.100.79.254
…… .. ………. ………….

160.100.248.0 160.100.255.255 160.100.248.1 – 160.100.255.254

VLSM (Variable Leg Subnet Mask)

The concept of subneting is indeed a solution in overcoming the number of IP addresses used. However, if you pay attention, there will be many subnets. More detailed explanation in the example:

Example 2:
A company that has 6 departments wants to divide its network, including:
1. Department A = 100 hosts
2. Department B = 57 hosts
3. Department C = 325 hosts
4. Department D = 9 hosts
5. Department E = 500 hosts
6. Department F = 25 hosts

IP Address given from ISP is 160.100.0.0/16

If we use ordinary subneting it will be easy to get but the results of subneting (such as example 1) will be wasted because the results of subneting are too many than the required number of hosts. Then we need VLSM calculations, namely:

  1. Sort by required hosts
    1. Department E = 500 hosts
    2. Department C = 325 hosts
    3. Department A = 100 hosts
    4. Department B = 57 hosts
    5. Department F = 25 hosts
    6. Department D = 9 hosts
  2. Convert to binary

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
If the subneting is taken from the network then the VLSM is taken from the host

l For 500 hosts
network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000000 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

For 500 hosts, 9 bits are taken from the host-portion because
2n-2 > number of hosts

The result is 160.100.0.0/23

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.0.0/23 160.100.0.255 160.100.0.1 – 160.100.1.254
160.100.2.0/23 160.100.2.255 160.100.2.1 – 160.100.3.254
160.100.4.0/23 160.100.4.255 160.100.4.1 – 160.100.5.254
160.100.6.0/23 160.100.6.255 160.100.6.1 – 160.100.7.254
160.100.8.0/23 160.100.8.255 160.100.8.1 – 160.100.9.254
…….. ………. ………….
160.100.254.0/23 160.100.254.255 160.100.254.1 – 160.100.255.254

l For 325 hosts we can still use a subnet of 500 hosts because it is still in arena 29 and choose an unused subnet.
l For 100 hosts use 28 > 100 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.2.0/24

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000010 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.2.0/24 160.100.2.255 160.100.2.1 – 160.100.2.254
160.100.3.0/24 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.1 – 160.100.3.254

l For 57 hosts use 26 >57 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.0/24

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.0/26 160.100.3.91 160.100.3.1 – 160.100.3.90
160.100.3.64/26 160.100.3.63 160.100.3.65 – 160.100.3.126
160.100.3.128/26 160.100.3.127 160.100.3.129 – 160 100. 3.190
160.100.3.192/26 160.100.3.191 160.100.3.193 – 160.100.3.254

l For 25 hosts use 25 > 25 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.192/25

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000
then

Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.192/27 160.100.3.223 160.100.3.193 – 160.100.3.222
160.100.3.224/27 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.225 – 160.100.3.254

l For 9 hosts use 24 > 16 and take one of the previously unused subnets.
e.g. 160.100.3.224/25

network-portion host-portion
10100000 01100100 00000010 00000000
11111111 11111111 00000011 00000000

then
Network Broadcast Range-Hoat
160.100.3.224/28 160.100.3.239 160.100.3.225 – 160.100.3.227
160.100.3.240/28 160.100.3.255 160.100.3.241 – 160.100.3.254

 

SUBNETTING ON IP ADDRESS CLASS B

First, the subnet mask that can be used for subnetting class B is as below. I deliberately separated it into two, the left and right blocks because each has a different technique, especially for the octet that is “played” based on the subnet block. The CIDR /17 to /24 method is exactly the same as the Class C subnetting, only the subnet blocks are inserted directly into the third octet, not like Class C is “played” in the fourth octet. While the CIDR /25 to /30 (multiple) of the subnet block we “play” in the fourth octet, but after the third octet is finished, we move forward (coeunter) from 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on.

Now let’s try two questions for both subnetting techniques for Class B. We start from using a subnetmask with a CIDR of /17 to /24. Example network address 172.16.0.0/18.

Analysis: 172.16.0.0 means class B, with Subnet Mask /18 means 11111111.11111111.110000000000000 (255.255.192.0).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 2x, where x is the number of binaries 1 in the last 2 octets. So the number of subnets is 22 = 4 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 2y – 2, where y is the reciprocal of x i.e. the number of 0 binaries in the last 2 octets. So the number of hosts per subnet is 214 – 2 = 16,382 hosts
  • Block Subnet = 256 – 192 = 64. The next subnets are 64 + 64 = 128, and 128+64=192. So the complete subnets are 0, 64, 128, 192.
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

Next we try another one for Class B, especially for those using the CIDR /25 to /30 subnetmask. Example network address 172.16.0.0/25.

Analysis: 172.16.0.0 means class B, with Subnet Mask /25 means 11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000 (255.255.255.128).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 29 = 512 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 27 – 2 = 126 hosts
  • Subnet block = 256 – 128 = 128. So the complete is (0, 128)
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

SUBNETTING ON IP ADDRESS CLASS A

If it is solid and understands correctly, we will continue to Class A. The concepts are all the same. The difference is in which OCTET we play the subnet blocks. If Class C is in the 4th (last) octet, class B is in the 3rd and 4th octet (last 2 octet), if Class A is in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th octet (last 3 octet). Then the subnet masks that can be used for subnetting class A are all subnet masks from CIDR /8 to /30.

We try to practice for the network address 10.0.0.0/16.

Analysis: 10.0.0.0 means class A, with Subnet Mask /16 means 111111111.11111111.000000000000000 (255.255.0.0).

Calculation:

  • Number of Subnets = 28 = 256 subnets
  • Number of Hosts per Subnet = 216 – 2 = 65534 hosts
  • Block Subnet = 256 – 255 = 1. So the complete subnet is: 0.1,2,3,4, and so on.
  • Valid host and broadcast addresses?

Note: All subnet calculations above assume that IP Subnet-Zeroes (and IP Subnet-Ones) are calculated by default. Todd Lamle’s latest version of the book as well as CCNA after 2005 have accommodated this IP Subnet-Zeroes (and IP Subnet-Ones) problem. CCNA pre-2005 does not include it by default (though in fact we can activate it with the command ip subnet-zeroes), so maybe in some books about CCNA and CNAP test questions, you still find the formula for calculating the number of subnets = 2x – 2

 

IP Address

IP Address is the address assigned to the network and network equipment that uses the TCP / IP protocol. IP addresses consist of 32 bit binary numbers which can be written as four decimal places separated by periods such as 192.16.10.01 or for example in wxyz format. IP addresses are the most widely used protocols for forwarding (routing) information on the network.

IP addresses have classes as in table 2.4.

Table 2.4. IP address
classes Class Range Network ID Host ID Default Subnet Mask
A 1-126 w xyz 255.0.0.0
B 128-191 wx yz 255.255.0.0
C 192-223 wxy z 255.255.255.0

note: there is still class D that is rarely used, and there is IPV6 that will be used if this IPV4 is not sufficient.

For example, there is an IP 192.168.0.100, so it includes a Class C IP Address

Subnetting

If an owner of a class B IP address, for example, requires more than one network ID, he must apply to Internic to get a new IP address. However, the supply of IP addresses is very limited due to the proliferation of sites on the internet.

To overcome this, a technique emerged to multiply the network ID from an existing network. This is called subnetting, in which a portion of the host ID is sacrificed for use in creating additional network IDs.

For example, in class B, the network ID is 130.200.0.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.224.0 where the third octet is enclosed by 224. It can be calculated using the formula 256-224=32. then the subnet groups that can be used are multiples of 32, 64, 128, 160, and 192. Thus, the IP address groups that can be used are:

130.200.32.1 to 130.200.63.254
130.200.64.1 to 130.200.95.254
130.200.96.1 to 130.200.127.254
130.200.128.1 to 130.200.159.254
130.200.160.1 to 130.200.191.254
130.200.192.1 to 130.200.223.254

Or it will be easier with a good formulation in determining the subnet and the number of hosts per subnet. The number of subnets = 2n-2, n = the number of hidden bits

Number of hosts per subnet = 2N-2, N = number of bits not hidden

For example, suppose a subnet has a network address of 193.20.32.0 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.224. So: The
number of subnets is 6, because from the network address 193.20.32.0 by paying attention to the number from the first octet, which is 193, it can be seen that it is in class C. By observing the subnetmask 255.255.255.224 or 11111111.11111111.1111111. 11100000 can be seen that the three bits of the host ID are shrouded, so we get n = 3 and get: number of subnets = 23-2 = 6.

As for the number of hosts per subnet is 30, this is obtained from 5 bits that are not hidden, then N = 5 and will be obtained: the number of hosts per subnet = 25-2 = 30.

The hidden bit is the bit that is represented by the number 1, while the bit that is not hidden is the bit that is represented by the number 0.

 

 

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The Various Digital Marketing Tools Currently Available To Canadian Businesses

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If you have been thinking about talking to a digital marketing agency and getting them to set up a digital marketing campaign for your specific business then you are making a very smart decision here. It has been widely proven that digital marketing is the most effective way to reach out to your current customers and all those potential thousands of customers as well. Businesses that have embraced digital marketing have gone on to receive better quality traffic which resulted in more sales and higher profits.

Nobody expects you to know the ins and outs of digital marketing and so this is why you always reach out to a trusted agency like King Kong that can guide you in the right direction and point your business towards more profitability. There are many digital marketing tools currently available to your business and so the following are just some of the ones that you might want to consider.

    1. Social media – It will be difficult not to find someone who doesn’t have some kind of social media presence and many people admit to checking their social media page 15 times a day or more. This is where your business needs to reach out to your current and prospective customers and it is a great way to get answers from them immediately.
    2. Email marketing – This is a proven tried and tested method that many modern Canadian businesses are now using and everybody admits to checking their email at least once a day. It is the perfect tool for businesses no matter if they are big or small and you can let customers know about certain sales campaigns that are coming up.
  • Search engine optimisation – This is an incredible tool that helps to push your particular business website to the top of the popular search engine rankings where people will see it more and will hopefully click through to it. If your business is always featuring at the top of the search engine rankings then people will learn to trust it and they will find it much easier to make a purchasing decision because of it.

You need to know that there are many other digital marketing tools currently available to you and these three are just some of the popular ones. The important thing is to realise that digital marketing is the future for your business and so start using it today.

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How to Find a Good Pest Control Company in Your City

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Finding a good pest control company may be a tedious task because you don’t know which one is genuine. Every company claims to offer the best services but may disappoint you later on. Not every pest control company gives the services just like pest control Nampa does. You can find a good one by comparing a few of them based on several factors.  With the right company, you can get rid of pests from your house and live a stress-free life. Some of the tips for choosing the best pest control company have been elaborated on below:

Following government regulations and certifications 

You should choose a pest control company that follows all the rules and laws pertaining to saving animals and nature. The government does not encourage killing animals and takes every step to prevent them. If the company follows all rules and regulations, you should choose to remove pests from your house. The products they use will be of high quality and safe for human beings and pets.

Trained professionals 

Pest control involves inspection of the house, identifying pests and choosing the best pest control method to eliminate pests from the house. All of these tasks require highly knowledgeable technicians and professionals. It is suggested to ask about their previous tasks performed in other houses. 

Make an appointment for the home inspection

It is a good idea to contact the pest control company that can come to your house and perform inspections. Depending on the type and nature of pests, they can give you the option to remove pests from your house. This way, you can also compare a few companies before finalizing the right one.

License and warranty 

Another important factor to consider is the license of the company. it is important to check whether the company is licensed to offer services in the town. Apart from this, you should check the warranty options given by the company. How long the company can remove the pests if they come back after the pest control?

Check reviews online

These days, these reviews are easily found online on several websites and the official website of the company. You can find out what others say through these portals and make the right decision to hire the best one. You can also contact their existing and past customers.

A good pest control company can make a great difference to your home’s safety and cleanliness. 

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German Vs Spanish: Which Language Should One Learn?

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Learning a new language and being bilingual can have many benefits. Besides being a gateway to improved job opportunities, cultural understanding, and personal growth. Learning a new language also has medical benefits. A study conducted by Italian researchers concluded that those with hereditary Alzheimer’s can delay symptoms for nearly 5 years by speaking bilingually regularly. One of the most difficult parts of learning a new language is choosing which one to learn. It is important to do your research instead of just following the masses. What may be good for one person, might not necessarily be good for others. 

Today, our comparison is between Spanish and German. Both languages hold a special place in global politics, technology, history, economics, and more. Spanish is more widely spoken than German, but depending on the situation may not be any more important. Both languages are easily accessible for English speakers with a variety of ways to learn them. You can get a tutor to teach you the language or you can even download a mobile application like Doulingo. It all depends on your preference for learning. You can also find forums where students discuss the best learning methods. 

Ease of access means that you can choose to learn either language without much trouble, hence it all boils down to which language is best for you. Today, we will do a concise analysis to help you decide which language to pursue. 

Which is Easier to Learn?

It is generally known that Spanish is easier to learn for English speakers. While German may not be considered an easy language to learn. It has not been classified as a difficult language to learn either. Both languages share certain linguistic derivations with English or have similar-sounding words. So vocabulary might not be a major issue with either language. 

Similarly, when writing the languages, the alphabets mimic the sound of the words. Which is another similarity between both languages with English. 

According to forums and language teachers, Spanish is probably easier to learn than German, especially in the early stages. However, difficulty levels are at the same level in the advanced learning stage. German has strict grammar rules that students must learn early on to move to the advanced stage. But once you get the hang of the grammar rules, it gets easier from there. Spanish in the initial stages is simpler to learn, but as you get into the advanced, complex stage. You are more likely to make mistakes, and learning becomes less enjoyable.

So if you are looking to learn the basics, just enough to get you by as a tourist. Then Spanish is easier to learn. But if you want to be bilingual or have career opportunities from your language skills, then both are almost equally difficult, with German ranking slightly higher on the difficulty index.

Factors to Consider

If you are confused about what language is best for you. Then maybe take a more data-based approach by considering the following factors.

Number of Speakers

Monetarily it might be beneficial to see how widely each language is spoken. Spanish has 500 million global speakers and German has nearly 100 million.

Spanish translation services are more in demand for this reason. However, such translations are relevant to specific industries like entertainment, media, and education. While industries like the Automotive industry or Renewable energy have German translations in more demand. 

Geography

You have to consider where you’re more likely to travel, work, or live. As you might know,  Spanish is spoken in 20 countries, mostly from Latin America. And German is used in European countries like Austria, Switzerland, and Germany. 

Hence naturally, professional German translation is in higher demand in Europe, while Spanish is in higher demand in the Americas. 

Economic Demand

Your education, experience, and background determine where your expertise is most needed. If, for instance, you have a degree in Electrical Engineering, learning German will provide more lucrative opportunities. If your degree is in Tourism, then Spanish is likely to be a better bet for you.

Personal Interest

You see, financial benefits are one thing. But it is not necessarily the only factor you should consider. Your interest makes life worth living, and money comes if you love what you do. So you should consider your interests, what you like to watch and listen to, where you prefer to travel, and more related things.

Potential Opportunities

Did you know that German speakers can get scholarships, grants, and jobs with more ease in Germany? Similarly, Latin American countries also offer language-based scholarships for international students. Moreover, there are certain job roles where you can earn more for being fluent in more than one language. 

Conclusion

When you have to choose between these two languages, carefully assess which one is best for you. Stats are almost nothing to the individual, it is all about you vs the situation. Getting it?  Even in a one-in-a-million chance, you could be that one! There are various factors to consider, and it is better to consider them thoroughly. Learning a language can potentially take months and years. It is a long-term commitment. Good Luck guys, Adiós! Verabschiedung!

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