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Ovarian Cancer: Symptoms, Types & Treatment in India



Getting to know that you have cancer can be very difficult and life-changing. It is a life-threatening disease if not detected earlier. Ovarian cancer is not easy to detect; therefore, it is harder to treat than other cancers. 

In this article, Dr. Sandeep Nayak from MACS clinic cancer hospital in Bangalore talks about ovarian cancer.

What is Ovarian Cancer?

Cancer develops in a person’s body if the cells start growing abnormally and form a tumor. This can happen anywhere in the body. If the cancer cells develop in a woman’s ovaries, it is called ovarian cancer. 

Ovaries are an essential reproductive organ. They are two female reproductive organs producing eggs. They also produce progesterone and estrogen.

Cancerous or malignant tumors grow fast and can spread through your body. If the cancer is left untreated, it can spread to other areas of the body. If the tumor is non-cancerous or benign, it will not spread to other areas of the body. It will stay in one place and will grow slowly over time. 

Dr. Sandeep Nayak is one of the best oncologists in India, with over 15 years of experience in treating cancer patients successfully. He is the founder of MACS clinic, one of the best cancer hospitals in Bangalore. Dr. Sandeep Nayak is regarded as one of the best oncologists in India by Clinicspots.


Ovarian cancer can begin, and spread through your abdomen before showing any symptoms and making the detection of cancer difficult, says Dr. Nayak.

If you experience any symptoms, they can include: 

  • Pain, discomfort, or bloating in your pelvis and abdomen
  • You may notice changes in your eating habits. You might lose your appetite and get full early.
  • You will experience belching and bloating, and stomach pain.
  • You may experience abnormal bleeding or vaginal discharge even when it is not your menstrual cycle, or you have gone through menopause. 
  • Feeling lumps or increased size of the abdomen. 
  • Urge to urinate frequently or urgently.


If the ovarian cancer is not caught early, it can show symptoms like: 

  • Fatigue
  • Back pain
  • Indigestion
  • Weight loss
  • Constipation


The ovaries are made up of three types of cells. Each of these cells can develop a different kind of tumor:

  • Epithelial ovarian carcinomas: Forms a tissue layer outside of the ovaries. 
  • Stromal tumors: These tumors grow in hormone-producing cells. 
  • Germ cell tumors: These tumors form in the egg-producing cells. These are rare.


Your doctor finds out the ovarian cancer stage based on how far cancer has spread, says Dr. Nayak. There are 4 stages of this, and each stage has substages:

  • Stage 1: 
  • Stage 1: ovarian cancer has 3 substages:
  • Stage 1A: One of the ovaries is affected by cancer. 
  • Stage 1B: Both ovaries contain cancerous cells. 
  • Stage 1C: The cancer cells are present outside the ovary.
  • Stage 2: In this stage, cancer has spread to the pelvic area.
  • Stage 2A: The cancer is spread to the fallopian tubes or uterus.
  • Stage 2B: Cancer has reached the rectum or bladder.

  • Stage 3: 
  • Stage 3 has 3 substages:
  • Stage 3A: Cancer has spread beyond the pelvis to the lining and lymph nodes of the abdomen.
  • Stage 3B: The malignancy has progressed from the pelvis to the abdomen’s lining and lymph nodes.
  • Stage 3C: 3/4th of an inch of cancer cells are seen outside the liver or on the abdomen. But it is not spread to the liver. 
  • Stage 4: The tumor is spread past the abdomen, pelvis, and lymph nodes to the liver or lungs.
  • Stage 4A: The malignant cells are in the fluid that is present around the lungs.
  • Stage 4B:  This is the most advanced stage, in which the cells have penetrated the liver or a distant organ such as the brain.


According to Dr. Nayak from MACS clinic cancer hospital in Bangalore, it would be much easier to treat ovarian cancer if it is detected in earlier stages, but it is not easy to see. 

You may not be able to feel a tumor because your ovaries are located deep in your abdominal cavity. That is the reason it’s essential to talk to your doctor if you see any unusual symptoms. Also, there are no screening tests for ovarian cancer like breast cancer. 

If your doctor suspects you have ovarian cancer, they will prescribe a pelvic exam. This can assist your doctor in determining whether there are any anomalies, although a small tumor may be difficult to see.

Your doctor may perform the following tests: 

1. Transvaginal Ultrasound (TVUS) 

It is an imaging test that detects cancers in your reproductive organs using sound waves. However, TVUS cannot determine if a tumor is malignant.

2. Blood tests

A CA-125 test is performed to determine whether the tumor is cancerous. If the test shows high levels of CA-125, your doctor determines that the cancer is present. 

3. Biopsy 

A sample of your ovarian tissues will be taken and examined under the microscope.

4. PET scan

This test involves a special dye that has radioactive tracers. This can be injected or swallowed. Organs and tissues absorb these tracers allowing your doctor to check if the organs are working well.


According to Dr. Nayak, the following are some of the treatment options available for treating ovarian cancer:


Surgery is a standard treatment for ovarian cancer. The surgery intends to remove the tumor entirely or as much as possible. Often, the removal of the uterus is necessary. 

Your doctor may recommend the removal of both the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic tissues. 

Some patients have early-stage cancers where it is possible to use minimally invasive techniques to remove the ovarian tumors or damaged tissue.


Chemotherapy involves the use of medications that are used to destroy cancerous cells. It is usually suggested by your doctor to get chemotherapy before or after the surgery to shrink or kill the cancerous cells respectively.


Radiotherapy uses radiation rays to kill cancer cells. It is used to treat advanced cancer if other treatments are not effective. Chemotherapy is also used to relieve symptoms like pain, discomfort, or bleeding.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is composed of medications that attack the ability of cancer cells to grow and survive. It is an excellent treatment option if you have ovarian cancer that has returned.


This procedure involves removing the uterus and cervix that have been diseased.


During this process, your surgeon will create an incision in the abdomen to remove cancerous tissue and abdominal fluid if necessary.


Ovarian cancers are not easy to detect because they primarily develop without symptoms. This makes it challenging to know that the cancer is present and it can grow without you knowing that it is present there. So, it becomes crucial that you talk to your doctor if you see any unusual symptoms. 

You can visit Dr. Sandeep Nayak at MACS clinic cancer hospital in Bangalore for further queries and inquiries. 

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Navigating ISPM 15: Essential Standards for Heat Treated Packing




In the global trade industry, ensuring the safe and efficient transportation of goods is paramount, and heat treated packing plays a critical role in this process. At the heart of this practice lies the ISPM 15 standard, a global benchmark designed to regulate and standardize the treatment of wooden packaging materials.

What is ISPM 15?

ISPM 15, or the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15, is an international regulation that governs the treatment of wooden packaging materials used in international trade. Established by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), ISPM 15 aims to prevent the spread of pests and diseases that can be transported through untreated wood. This standard applies to various wooden packaging materials, including pallets, crates, dunnages, and spools.

The need for such a standard arises from the potential threat that untreated wooden packaging poses to global agriculture and ecosystems. Pests, such as the pinewood nematode and the Asian long-horned beetle, can cause significant damage to forests and crops if they spread to new regions. ISPM 15 mitigates this risk by ensuring that all wooden packaging materials are treated to eliminate any pests or pathogens.

The Heat Treatment Process

Meeting the ISPM 15 standards involves a rigorous heat treatment process, which is one of the approved methods for sterilizing wooden packaging. The steps to achieve compliance are detailed and precise:

  1. Preparation and Inspection: Before the heat treatment process begins, the wooden packaging materials are inspected for any visible signs of pests, mold, or contamination. Only clean, undamaged wood is used.

  2. Heating: The wood is placed in a specialized chamber where it is heated to a core temperature of at least 56 degrees Celsius (132.8 degrees Fahrenheit). This temperature must be maintained for a minimum of 30 minutes to ensure the elimination of pests.

  3. Monitoring: Throughout the heating process, the temperature and duration are meticulously monitored and recorded. This step ensures that the entire batch of wood has been uniformly treated and meets the required standards.

  4. Cooling and Stamping: After the heat treatment, the wood is allowed to cool. Once cooled, the wood is stamped with the official ISPM 15 mark, indicating that it has been treated and is compliant with international standards.

With the completion of the heat treatment process, businesses can then enjoy a range of significant advantages. Understanding these benefits highlights why adherence to ISPM 15 standards is not just a regulatory necessity but also a strategic business decision.

Key Benefits of ISPM 15 Compliance

Compliance with ISPM 15 standards offers numerous advantages for businesses engaged in international trade. Here are some key benefits:

  • Facilitates Global Trade: By adhering to ISPM 15 standards, businesses can ensure the smooth transportation of goods across international borders. Compliance minimizes the risk of shipments being rejected or delayed due to phytosanitary concerns.

  • Protects Ecosystems: ISPM 15 plays a vital role in protecting global ecosystems from invasive pests and diseases. By using treated wooden packaging, businesses contribute to the preservation of forests and agricultural health worldwide.

  • Enhances Reputation: Businesses that comply with ISPM 15 standards demonstrate their commitment to quality and environmental responsibility. This can enhance their reputation among customers, partners, and regulatory authorities.

  • Reduces Costs: Non-compliance with ISPM 15 can result in significant financial penalties, shipment delays, and additional treatment costs. Adhering to the standards from the outset can help businesses avoid these expenses.

Transitioning from the benefits of compliance, it is essential to understand the marking and certification process, which guarantees that wooden packaging materials are easily recognizable and traceable.

Understanding Marking and Certification

Proper identification of treated materials is crucial for compliance with ISPM 15. The marking and certification process ensures that treated wooden packaging materials are easily recognizable and traceable. The ISPM 15 mark, often referred to as the “wheat stamp,” consists of several key elements:

  • IPPC Symbol: The mark includes the recognizable IPPC logo, which indicates compliance with international standards.

  • Country Code: Each mark contains a two-letter country code, signifying the country where the wood was treated.

  • Treatment Code: The treatment code, such as “HT” for heat treatment, specifies the type of treatment the wood has undergone.

  • Unique Identifier: A unique identifier or registration number is included, which can be traced back to the specific facility that performed the treatment.

This marking system provides a transparent and verifiable way to ensure that wooden packaging materials meet ISPM 15 standards. It also simplifies the inspection process for customs and regulatory authorities, reducing the likelihood of shipment delays or rejections.

Conclusion: Embracing ISPM 15 for Global Trade Success

Understanding and adhering to ISPM 15 standards for heat treated packing is essential for businesses engaged in international trade. This global standard not only facilitates the smooth movement of goods across borders but also plays a critical role in protecting global ecosystems from invasive pests. By following the heat treatment process, businesses can ensure compliance and reap the numerous benefits, including enhanced reputation, cost savings, and contribution to environmental sustainability. Proper marking and certification further streamline the trade process, making it easier for businesses to meet international requirements and maintain efficient operations.

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The Future is Now: How to Seamlessly Incorporate Smart Home Technology into Your Quality Home Construction





The way we live and experience residential design is being redefined by smart home technology. It delivers a level of convenience, comfort, and simple, efficient living that offers revolutionized ease of use. It is also serving what seems to be a worthwhile purpose in terms of energy and environmental efficiencies. 

Note: Find construction information and good home building companies like Grit Build at

But what is really exciting about this technology is that we are still at its frontier. We are living through a time where the advancements are rapid and as valuable as they are cool. As the speed of technological advancement is basically unstoppable, this is serving as an excellent opportunity to get in at the beginning and push these features to their fullest potential within the design and construction of a new home.

1. Planning and Pre-Wiring:

  • Early Integration: The technology of a smart home setup is best introduced and integrated during the planning and construction stages. This allows for good, solid wiring and proper infrastructure to serve as the backbone of a system long before the move-in day.
  • Network Infrastructure: A smart home system has a lot of parts—many of them connected to each other. A powerful, beautiful, and easy-to-use interface (or app) is the most observable part of the entire system. But the part you never see is the network infrastructure that makes it all work. A robust Wi-Fi network or a dedicated home automation network is essential for seamless communication between smart devices.
  • Power Outlets: Put the power outlets where you expect to use smart devices: thermostats, lighting controls, security cameras, and more.
  • Central Control Hub: A central control hub allows you to manage all your smart devices from one location, even if they’re made by many different manufacturers.

2. Lighting:

Replace traditional bulbs and switches with smart options that can be managed from anywhere using smartphone apps or voice control. Add some flexibility and pizazz to your lighting with some smart dimmers and color-changing bulbs. Motion sensors provide a totally hands-free way to turn lights on and off, as these smart fixtures can detect when you enter or leave a room.

3. Security:

Improve your security with a modern technology solution that doesn’t break the bank. Smart locks top the list and allow you to remotely lock or unlock your doors, as well as view who might have tried to get in. Next, nest an indoor or outdoor camera. There are many on the market; we like the Nest Cams because they have features such as night vision and motion detection and can be set up to start recording only when a door or window opens—automating the old adage, “Lock It or Lose It.”

4. Climate Control:

Smart thermostats detect your everyday habits and your preferred temperatures and then automatically collaborate with your air conditioning system to ensure that the house is always at that sweet and, ideally, money-saving temperature. You can also control the thermostat and, by extension, the temperature of your home, with the simplicity of a smartphone app. Smart thermostats have been around for a little while, and most people are familiar with what they can do. The same goes for simple HVAC vents: most people understand that they can be opened and closed and probably have closed off a few of them before.

5. Entertainment:

Here are three ways you can integrate smart home technology into your home. First, you can install smart speakers such as the Amazon Echo or Google Home. These allow you to use voice commands to control smart home devices, like a traditional remote— with the bonus twist of conversational interfaces like those discussed above. Unlike the smart remotes I mentioned earlier, these can also play music and answer questions. Second, you can install whole-house audio and zone it up. This means that you can listen to music (or a movie soundtrack) just about anywhere in the house. And you can do it using your phone.

6. Other Smart Devices:

  • Make any electrical device become a smart device just by connecting it to a smart plug. These can be turned on and off by the user wherever they may be. An example would be if you’re on a trip and you realize you left something on at home. You can quickly check the app on your phone and turn it off without a second thought.
  • Smart appliances take things one step further and don’t just give the user control over the device but also provide feedback and the ability to manage the device’s features.


Integrating intelligent home technology into your well-crafted home construction is a way to invest in the future of your living space. It allows you to boost convenience, comfort, energy efficiency, and—most important of all—security, all while packing on potential resale value. Housing Styles that boost “smart” amenities are continuing an upward trend in the real estate market. The plans you make now to incorporate smart features and the choices you make for smart home devices will also shape a home that’s smart, secure, and efficient.

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The Ultimate Guide to Marathon Running Shoes for Men




Running a marathon is a significant achievement that requires dedication, training, and the right gear. One of the most crucial pieces of equipment for any marathon runner is a good pair of mens running shoes. The right shoes can make a massive difference in your performance, comfort, and injury prevention. In this guide, we’ll explore what makes the best mens running shoes for marathons, highlight some top choices, and offer tips for selecting the perfect pair.

Key Features of Marathon Running Shoes

When choosing mens running shoes for a marathon, several key features should be considered to ensure optimal performance and comfort:


Marathon runners need shoes with ample cushioning to absorb the impact of running long distances. Look for mens running shoes with advanced cushioning technologies such as Nike’s React foam, Adidas’ Boost, or ASICS’ Gel cushioning. These materials provide excellent shock absorption, reducing stress on your joints.


Proper support is essential to prevent injuries and maintain comfort over the course of a marathon. Depending on your foot type and running style, you may need shoes with extra arch support or stability features. Mens running shoes designed for overpronation (excessive inward rolling of the foot) or supination (outward rolling) can help correct your stride and prevent injuries.


A good fit is crucial for marathon shoes. Mens running shoes should provide a snug, comfortable fit without being too tight. There should be enough room in the toe box to wiggle your toes, and the heel should fit securely without slipping. It’s also essential to try on shoes with the socks you plan to wear during the marathon.


Running a marathon generates a lot of heat, so it’s vital to have shoes with good breathability. Look for mens running shoes made with breathable mesh uppers that allow air to circulate, keeping your feet cool and dry.


The weight of your shoes can impact your performance, especially over long distances. Lighter mens running shoes reduce fatigue and help you maintain your speed throughout the marathon. However, make sure that the shoes still offer enough cushioning and support for your needs.


Marathon running puts a lot of wear and tear on shoes. Choose mens running shoes made from high-quality materials that can withstand the rigors of long-distance running. Durable shoes ensure consistent performance and support throughout your training and the race itself.

Top Marathon Running Shoes for Men

Here are some of the best mens running shoes for marathon runners, known for their comfort, support, and performance-enhancing features:

Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 40:

The Pegasus 40 is a versatile shoe with excellent cushioning and support. Nike’s Zoom Air units provide responsive cushioning, while the breathable mesh upper ensures your feet stay cool. The durable rubber outsole offers reliable traction, making it a great choice for marathon runners.

Adidas Ultraboost 24:

Known for its plush comfort and energy return, the Ultraboost 24 features Adidas’ Boost midsole technology. The Primeknit upper provides a sock-like fit, and the Continental rubber outsole delivers exceptional grip and durability.

ASICS Gel-Kayano 30:

The Gel-Kayano 30 is a stability shoe designed for overpronators. It features ASICS’ FlyteFoam technology for lightweight cushioning and Gel technology for added shock absorption. The breathable mesh upper and supportive heel counter enhance comfort and stability.

Brooks Ghost 16:

The Ghost 16 is a neutral shoe with a balanced blend of cushioning and support. Brooks’ DNA Loft cushioning provides a smooth, soft ride, while the engineered mesh upper offers breathability and flexibility. It’s a reliable choice for marathon runners seeking comfort and durability.

New Balance Fresh Foam 1080v12:

This shoe combines plush cushioning with a supportive fit. The Fresh Foam midsole delivers a comfortable, responsive ride, and the Hypoknit upper provides a secure, adaptable fit. The 1080v12 is perfect for runners who want a blend of comfort and performance.

Tips for Choosing the Right Marathon Running Shoes

In addition to considering the key features and top models, here are some tips to help you choose the perfect mens running shoes for your marathon:

  1. Get a Professional Fitting: Visit a specialty running store to get your feet professionally measured and your gait analyzed. This ensures you select shoes that match your foot type and running style.
  2. Break Them In: Don’t wear new shoes for the first time on race day. Make sure to break them in during your training runs to avoid blisters and discomfort.
  3. Replace Worn-Out Shoes: Pay attention to the mileage on your shoes. Most mens running shoes need to be replaced every 300-500 miles to ensure they provide adequate support and cushioning.
  4. Consider Your Running Environment: If you train on different surfaces, choose shoes that can handle various terrains, or consider having multiple pairs for different conditions.


Choosing the right mens running shoes is essential for a successful marathon experience. Look for shoes that offer ample cushioning, support, a good fit, breathability, and durability. With the right pair, you can enhance your performance, prevent injuries, and enjoy every mile of your marathon.

For the best running gear, consider checking out Runners Need – an online store that offers a wide range of high-quality mens running shoes designed to meet the needs of every runner. With the right gear, you can achieve your marathon goals with confidence and comfort.


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